Inside the Entity

This topic concentrates on the model object’s entity nature, in particular how the entity is tracked during its lifetime on the client. You’ll learn about the entityAspect property through which the developer can access and control the state of the entity within the Breeze system.

Code snippets on this page are in the basicTodoTests and entityTests modules of the DocCode teaching tests.


A domain model object represents something significant in the application domain. A “Customer”, for example, has data properties (“Name”), relationships to other entities (“Orders”) and perhaps some business logic (“isGoldCustomer”). We bind these object members to UI controls and reason about them in application code. They are what matters most to users and other application stakeholders. They define “Customer-ness”.

The “Customer” is also an entity, a long-lived object with a permanent key. We can fetch it from a database, hold it in cache, check for changes, validate, and save it. When the developer’s attention turns to whether an object has changed or not, what its values used to be, how it is persisted, whether it has validation errors … the developer is thinking about the object’s entity nature. Breeze is responsible for the object’s entity nature, its “entity-ness”. You access an entity’s entity nature through its entityType and entityAspect properties.


Every Breeze entity instance has an entityType property that returns an EntityType object which is the metadata that describe its properties and other facts about the type.

var type = someCustomer.entityType;


A Breeze entity is “self-tracking”. It maintains its own entity state, and the means to change that state, in the EntityAspect object returned by its entityAspect property.

An object becomes a Breeze entity when it acquires its EntityAspect which it does when it

  • first enters the cache as a result of a query or import OR
  • is created with the EntityType.createEntity factory method OR
  • is explictly added or attached to an EntityManager

The first of any of these actions is sufficient to endow an object with its EntityAspect which it retains throughout its client session lifetime.

We’ll tackle the key features of EntityAspect in four groups.


Is the entity attached to an EntityManager and therefore in its cache? Has it changed? If changed, is it a new entity, a modified version of an existing entity from remote storage, or an existing entity that is marked for deletion?

The entityState property answers these questions with a value from the EntityState enumeration. Here are the enumeration names and their meanings:

EntityState Description
“Added” A new entity in cache that does not exist in the backend database.
“Unchanged” An existing entity in cache that was queried from the database; the entity has no unsaved changes since it was last retrieved or saved.
“Modified” An existing entity in cache with pending changes.
“Deleted” An existing entity in cache that is marked for deletion.
“Detached” An entity that is not in cache; its status in the database is unknown.

You can test the value of an EntityState enumeration by comparing its name with a string. Or you may prefer to test with the enumeration’s properties and methods:

var state = anEntity.entityAspect.entityState;
if ( === "Modified") {/* ... */};             // ok
if (state === breeze.EntityState.Modified) {/* ... */}; // better
if (state.IsModified())  {/* ... */};                   // best
if (state.IsAddedModifiedorDeleted())  {/* ... */};     // often useful

EntityState transitions

As things happen to an entity, Breeze updates its EntityState automatically. Here are before and after EntityStates for some of the most common actions:

Before Action After
- Entity materialized in cache by a query Unchanged
Unchanged Set one of its properties Modified
Modified Save it successfully Unchanged
Unchanged Mark it deleted Deleted
Deleted Save it Detached
- Create a new entity Detached
Detached Add the new entity to the manager Added
Added Delete it (or call rejectChanges) Detached

Two state-changes may surprise you. If you mark an existing entity for deletion and save it successfully, the entity becomes detached. Breeze can’t make the entity disappear; it may still be visible in the UI. But the entity no longer exists on the server so Breeze banishes it from its former EntityManager cache.

Deleting a new entity detaches it immediately. Breeze doesn’t wait for you to call saveChanges which is pointless if you’re discarding data that have never been saved.

Detached entities

A detached entity does not belong to an EntityManager. It’s still an entity; it’s just not an entity in any cache.

A detached entities should not be used. Either attach it to an EntityManager or release all references to it … and let it be garbage collected.

A detached entity is unreliable. It still has data values and you can still set them. But its navigation properties are not dependable and other entity features may behave unexpectedly. You can’t tell by inspection whether a detached entity has corresponding data in remote storage.

New entities start as detached entities. You might have to create them where no EntityManager is available. More likely, you have to initialize some of the new entity’s values before you can add it to an EntityManager. For example, because all entities in cache must have unique keys, if the entity key is client-determined (as opposed to store-generated), you must set the key to a unique value before you can attach the entity to an EntityManager.

You should initialize a new entity and then immediately add it to an EntityManager … unless you have a very good reason to do otherwise.

Entities can become detached deliberately or as a side-effect of another action. The following actions detach an entity:

  • explicitly removing it from its EntityManager (manager.detachEntity(anEntity))
  • clearing its EntityManager (manager.clear())
  • deleting a new entity
  • deleting an existing entity and then saving it successfully.

Note that removing an entity from cache (detaching it) does not delete it. The data of a pre-existing detached entity remain in remote storage.

Force an entityState change

You can change the entityState programmatically through one of the EntityAspect methods dedicated to that purpose.

  • setDeleted()
  • rejectChanges()
  • setModified()
  • setUnchanged()
  • acceptChanges()

Call setDeleted() to schedule an entity for deletion as discussed below.

Call rejectChanges() to cancel pending changes as discussed below.

You rarely see setModified, setUnchanged, or acceptChanges in production code; production entities become “Modified” or “Unchanged” as a side-effect of application activity.

You are most likely to call these methods while setting up fake entities for automated tests because you want to force these fakes into a particular test state. The setUnchanged and acceptChanges methods also clear the originalValues hash map, erasing memory of prior values; you won’t be able to revert these entities to their original values.

Deleting entities

Deleting an entity begins with an EntityState change. Call setDeleted() to mark an entity for deletion:

someEntity.entityAspect.setDeleted(); // mark for deletion

setDeleted does not destroy the object locally nor does it remove the entity from the database. The entity simply remains in cache in a “Deleted” state … as changed and added entities do … until you save. A successful save deletes the entity from the database and removes it from cache.

Cancel with rejectChanges

Once you’ve changed an entity, it stays in a changed state … even if you manually restore the original values:

var oldDescription = todo.Description(); // assume existing "Unchanged" entity
todo.Description("Something new");       // entityState becomes "Modified"
todo.Description(oldDescription);        // entityState is still "Modified"

Call rejectChanges to cancel pending changes, revert properties to their prior values, and set the entityState to “Unchanged”.

var oldDescription = todo.Description();// assume existing "Unchanged" entity
todo.Description("Something new");      // entityState becomes "Modified"
todo.entityAspect.rejectChanges();      // entityState restored to "Unchanged"
                                        // todo.Description() === oldDescription

You can also call rejectChanges on the EntityManager to cancel and revert pending changes for every entity in cache.

manager.rejectChanges(); // revert all pending changes in cache

Original values

Breeze remembers the original property values when you change an existing entity. It stores these values in the EntityAspect’s originalValues hash map. The originalValues hash is an empty object while the entity is in the “Unchanged” state. When you change an entity property for the first time, Breeze adds the pre-change value to the originalValues hash, using the property name as the key. The keys of the hash are the names of the properties that have been changed since the entity was last queried or saved.

Here’s a function to get those keys:

function getOriginalValuesPropertyNames(entity) {
    var names = [];
    for (var name in entity.entityAspect.originalValues) { names.push(name); }
    return names;

Breeze replaces entityAspect.originalValues with a new empty hash when any operation restores the entity to the “Unchanged” state. A successful save, rejectChanges, setUnchanged, and acceptChanges all reset the originalValues hash.

PropertyChanged event

Breeze creates entities in accordance with the model library you selected for your application. If you specified (or accepted) the default Knockout (KO) model library, the entity’s properties are KO observables. You can subscribe to individual KO property changes as in this example:

    function (newValue) { /* ... */);});

Each model library has its own property change subscription mechanism.

Breeze also has a propertyChanged event that supplements the model library offering. You can listen for a change to any Breeze-tracked entity property with a single subscription:

       .subscribe(function (changeArgs) { /* ... */);});

The properties of the changeArgs are

  • entity - the entity that changed
  • propertyName - the name of the property that changed
  • oldValue - the value before the property changed
  • newValue - the current property value.

Capture the subscription token if you need to unsubscribe later.

  var token = entity.entityAspect.propertyChanged
                    .subscribe(function (changeArgs) { /* ... */);});
  // ... time passes ...


Breeze only monitors changes to properties identified in the metadata for this EntityType. These properties - mapped and unmapped - are the “Breeze-tracked entity properties” mentioned earlier. Breeze doesn’t track properties that you add with an entity initialization function (see Extending Entities) or that you patch into the entity later in its lifetime.

Nor does Breeze raise the propertyChanged event when an EntityAspect property changes. For example, the propertyChanged event does not fire when the entityState changes.

You can detect when the entityState changes … using a technique to be described soon.

Breeze typically raises propertyChanged for each property individually. Some operations - such as queries, imports, saves, and rejectChanges - update many properties at the same time. Breeze consolidates notification of these changes into a single propertyChanged event with a “null” property name. A subscriber learns that at least one property changed but can’t know which particular properties changed; if this information is important to you, you’ll have to indentify the affected properties in some out-of-band way (see entityTests module of the DocCode teaching tests for a suggestion).


Breeze properties aren’t just observable. They can validate changes based on rules registered in metadata. Some of the validations are registered automatically based on information in the metadata. For example, a key property is automatically required. You can add your own custom validations as well. See the Validation topic for details.

In brief, Breeze evaluates validation rules at prescribed times. It can also validate on demand. Call the entityAspect.validateEntity to validate the entire entity which means every property validation rule as well as every entity-level validation rule. You can validate a single property (all of its rules) by calling entityAspect.validateProperty, passing in the name of the property and an optional context. Again, see the Validation topic for details.

A validation rule either passes or fails. If it passes, it returns null. If it fails, it returns a ValidationError describing the problem.

Every EntityAspect maintains a validationErrorsCollection. The Breeze validation engine adds a new ValidationError instance to that collection when a validation rules fails and removes an old ValidationErrors instance when its associated validation rule passes.

You can’t access the inner validationErrorsCollection directly. You can get a copy of its contents by calling entityAspect.getValidationErrors. You can also add to or remove validationErrors from the validationErrorsCollection programmatically with the EntityAspect methods, addValidationError and removeValidationError.

Breeze raises the EntityAspect.validationErrorsChanged event when ValidationErrors are added or removed from the entity’s validationErrorsCollection; you can subscribe to that event:


Breeze calls the handler with an errorsChangedArgs that tells you what property changed, the ValidationErrors that were added, and the ValidationErrors that were removed.

Entity miscellany

This last category is a small menagerie of miscellaneous EntityAspect members

  • entity- a backward reference to the entity that holds this EntityAspect
  • entityManager - the EntityManager to which this entity is attached … or was attached. It’s null if the entity is new and not yet added to a manager.
  • getKey - a function returning the entity’s EntityKey. A key is an object that uniquely identifies the entity in cache and in remote storage. The key is not a simple JavaScript value. It’s an object the identifies the type of the entity and the value … or values … of the key; Breeze supports entities with composite keys.
  • isBeingSaved - a property that returns true if this entity is one in a batch of entities being saved and the save operation is still in progress. Your application may need to prevent further changes to the entity until the save operation completes, successfully or not.
  • loadNavigationProperty - you can download related entities, on demand, by calling loadNavigationProperty as described in the Navigation Properties topic.

Breeze properties on the entity itself

You typically access the breeze entity infrastructure through the entityAspect property. Breeze also injects a few more entity-oriented members into the model object’s prototype. These members are visible on the entity’s surface API.

entityType - a property that returns the Breeze type information object metadata describing this type of entity.

var customerType = manager.metadataStore.getEntityType("Customer");
var customer = customerType.createEntity();
// customer.entityType === customerType 

getProperty - a function that returns the value of a property setProperty - a function that sets a property value

var setName = "Ima Something Corp";
customer.setProperty("CompanyName", setName);
var getName = customer.getProperty("CompanyName");
// getName === setName

With getProperty and setProperty, you can write utilities to access the properties of any Breeze entity. The model library won’t matter. An entity could be implemented with the Knockout model library, the backbone model library, the angular model library, or a custom model library. Each library has its own distinctive property accessor methodology. You can ignore these differences.

The setProperty function follows the same code path as the model library property accessor and will raise property change events, change the entity state, and trigger validation accordingly. Note that calling setProperty with an ‘invalid’ propertyName, i.e. one that does NOT have an associated DataProperty or NavigationProperty, will result in model library specific behavior.

_$interceptor - a Breeze internal function; please leave it alone.