Creating a new entity

Breeze creates new entity instances on two primary occasions: (1) when it “materializes” entities from query results and (2) when you ask it to create a brand new entity.

Entity materialization is largely hidden from the developer. You issue a query; you get entities back. Behind the scenes Breeze converts the stream of model object data into entities in cache. The developer only becomes aware of entity creation details when making new model objects.

Don’t use “new”

You might expect to make a model object by calling new on a constructor function:

var newCust = new Customer(); // rarely done in Breeze

You can do it this way … if you’ve defined a Customer constructor and registered it with Breeze. But most Breeze developers don’t define entity constructors or, if they do, they define only a subset of the entity’s properties and methods (see the Extending entities topic).

It’s preferable to let Breeze create the entity based on entity type information gleaned from metadata acquired from the remote data service … in which case there is no constructor to “new up”.


The standard approach is to call the Breeze createEntity factory function on an EntityManager:

var newCust = manager.createEntity('Customer', {name:'Acme'});

The first parameter, ‘Customer’, is the name of the EntityType

Don’t confuse the type name (‘Customer’) with the similar resource name (‘Customers’) that identifies the server endpoint in a query.

In this example, we also passed in an optional property initializer, a hash that sets the new customer’s name: {name: 'Acme'}. You may not need an initializer but it is often the easiest way to simultaneously create and initialize a new entity.

If the entity key is client-generated, then you must specify the key in the initializer … or you’ll likely get an exception. For example, the Northwind OrderDetail has a composite key consisting of its parent order id and product id. You must set both values before adding the new entity to the cache.

var newOrderDetail = 
    manager.createEntity('OrderDetail', {orderId: oid, productId: pid});

The createEntity method adds the entity to the manager because that’s what you usually want to do with a newly created entity. Alternatively, you can provide the optional third parameter specifying the EntityState to keep the entity detached or maybe attach it in some other state.

var EntityState = breeze.EntityState;

// unattached new customer
// you can keep configuring it and add/attach it later
var newCust = manager.createEntity('Customer', {name:'Beta'}, EntityState.Detached);

// attached customer, as if retrieved from the database
// note that the id must be specified when attaching an 'existing' entity
var oldCust = manager.createEntity('Customer', {id: 42, name:'Gamma'}, EntityState.Unchanged);


The createEntity method of the EntityManager is shorthand for something like:

var metadataStore = manager.metadataStore; // model metadata known to this EntityManager instance
var customerType = metadataStore.getEntityType('Customer'); // metadata about the Customer type 
var newCust = customerType.createEntity({name:'Acme'}); // call the factory function for the Customer type
manager.addEntity(newCust); // attach the entity as a new entity; it's EntityState is "Added"

Why would you ever want to write that? Perhaps you are creating hundreds of new customer entities all at once. With the longhand version, you can avoid the cost of finding the customerType for each new customer.

Four important facts about this approach:

  1. Breeze creates the data properties and entity navigation properties based on metadata.
  2. Breeze defines these properties in the manner appropriate for the model library you choose
  3. The new object is “wired up” as a Breeze entity
  4. The new object is “detached” and does not belong to any EntityManager cache until you attach it explicitly

The first fact means you don’t have to worry about keeping your client-side Customer definition aligned with the server-side “Customer” class definition if you’re getting your metadata from the server. Change the server-side definition and the client-side definition updates automatically.

The second fact means that newCust is shaped to match your model preference. If you configured Breeze for AngularJS or Aurelia, newCust has a name property. If you configured Breeze for Knockout, newCust has a name() observable function for getting and setting the name. If you configured Breeze for backbone, newCust becomes observable in the backbone manner, e.g. via get('name') and set('name', newValue) function calls.

The third fact means newCust has embedded Breeze capabilities you can tap into via the newCust.entityAspect property. We’ll talk about entityAspect in the next topic.

The fourth fact means some of newCust’s Breeze capabilities are temporarily disabled until you attach it to the manager. For example, if we stopped at line #3, the newCust couldn’t navigate to related entities in cache because it’s not in a cache. Only after the fourth line …


… is the newCust object ready to behave both as a Customer and as an entity.