NOTE: This page is for Breeze running on .NET 4.x

The Basic Breeze teaching tests make requests for data services to an ASP.NET Web API controller. The controller forwards those requests to the .NET Entity Framework (EF).

This arrangement is typical for many Breeze applications and, although far from necessary, it is the arrangement we’re describing in “Basic Breeze”.

We’ve already defined the EF code first model that supports our DocCode sample tests. We’ll need an Entity Framework DbContext to configure and access that model.

We’re using Entity Framework, not teaching it, so we’ll simply show you our NorthwindDbContext (located in the Models folder) and highlight the key points.

public class NorthwindContext : DbContext
    private const string _contextName = "NorthwindContext";
    public static string ContextName { get { return _contextName; } }
    public NorthwindContext() : base(ContextName )
        Configuration.ProxyCreationEnabled = false;
        Configuration.LazyLoadingEnabled = false;

    protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        // Table names match singular entity names by default (don't pluralize)

        modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new CustomerConfiguration());
        modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new OrderDetailConfiguration());
        modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new PreviousEmployeeConfiguration());

    // DbSets begin here</pre>

The NortwindContext constructor calls the base class constructor overload that takes a “context name”; the context name serves also as a key to the database connection string located in the Web.config. We’ll make that name publicly accessible; we’ll need it later.

The next two lines of configuration are important. EF should only get data from the database when told to do so explicitly. We don’t want EF to accidentally lazy load navigation properties such as Customer.Orders. To ensure that doesn’t happen, we disable both ProxyCreation and LazyLoading.

Next, we override the OnModelCreating method and use EF’s fluent API to configure the mapping between our classes and the database.

By convention, EF will assume that our singular entity names should be mapped to plural table names. That’s not how the Northwind database is set up. The table backing the Customer entity should be called “Customer” (singular), not “Customers” (plural). So we immediately remove EF’s “pluralizing” convention.

Several entity-specific configurations follow. These configurations could have been written inline but we follow the tidier practice of encapsulating each entity’s configuration in a dedicated class. Feel free to examine these configuration classes on your own; while necessary to get the model mapping right, they are otherwise of no interest to Breeze.

DbSet properties occupy the remainder of the class. Each DbSet property identifies an entity class to be managed by the NorthwindContext and coincidentally makes it a little easier for the developer to express query and save operations in terms of the entities involved.

public DbSet<Category> Categories { get; set; }
public DbSet<Customer> Customers { get; set; }
public DbSet<Employee> Employees { get; set; }
public DbSet<EmployeeTerritory> EmployeeTerritories { get; set; }
public DbSet<Order> Orders { get; set; }
public DbSet<OrderDetail> OrderDetails { get; set; }
public DbSet<PreviousEmployee> PreviousEmployees { get; set; }
public DbSet<Product> Products { get; set; }
public DbSet<Region> Regions { get; set; }
public DbSet<Role> Roles { get; set; }
public DbSet<Supplier> Suppliers { get; set; }
public DbSet<Territory> Territories { get; set; }
public DbSet<User> Users { get; set; }
public DbSet<UserRole> UserRoles { get; set; }
public DbSet<InternationalOrder> InternationalOrders { get; set; }

Multiple assemblies and namespaces

Our samples tend to combine the entity model classes, Entity Framework components, MVC, and scripts all in one big project. We wouldn’t do that in a real application. We’d have separate assemblies for the major concerns. We might keep our entity models in a Models *assembly (with namespace *Todo.Models) and put our DbContext in a *Data *assembly (with namespace *Todo.Data). That’s not a problem for the Breeze server-side components which will find them both.

That’s not a problem for BreezeJS clients either; as of Breeze v.0.83.3, the namespace of Model classes can be different from the namespace of the DbContext (or ObjectContext).

Next Step

That’s just about our last word on Entity Framework. Time to move on to the Web API controller.

Appendix: EF Versions

There are many Entity Framework versions floating about. Our current releases (for WebAPI 2.2) target EF 6. See the NuGet Packages page for more info.

If there’s a version mismatch, you could get a runtime exception such as:

Could not load file or assembly ‘EntityFramework, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089’ or one of its dependencies. The located assembly’s manifest definition does not match the assembly reference. (Exception from HRESULT: 0x80131040)

In many cases you can add an assembly redirect to the Web.config that points to the version you’re using.

  • Open Web.config
  • Find the tag
  • insert something like

In this example, we’re redirecting to version

As a last resort, you can download the source code for the Breeze.WebApi project, adjust its platform and Entity Framework references, and compile your own version.

You can also try downloading Breeze version 1.4.4 or earlier to use on the server. You can still use the latest version of Breeze on the client.