Breeze Labs: AngularJS Validation and Required Indicator Directive

The zValidate Breeze/AngularJS validation directive displays and entity property’s validation errors on screen. It can also visually identifies a required property with an asterisk.

You can use NuGet to install the JavaScript and CSS files in your .NET web application project. Or you can download the JavaScript and CSS files manually from GitHub.

To use this directive in your app, all you do is:

  1. include the Breeze validation directive JavaScript and CSS files,
  2. add z-validate to your HTML control as you would any AngularJS directive.
<input data-ng-model="vm.person.firstName" data-z-validate >

And if there is an error, it displays like this:

zValidate error message

Breeze validation

Breeze entities have built-in model-level validation driven by metadata that describe client-side validation rules for properties and entities. Breeze invokes these rules automatically during four phases of the entity life-cycle (attached, queried, property changed, saved). You also can invoke these rules programmatically at any time.

You can read about these features in the user guide and in the Validator API documentation.

Those sources describe how to define validation rules and how to invoke them. They tell you that each entity carries a collection of zero-or-more validation errors that you can access by calling its entityAspect.getValidationErrors()

They don’t explain how to display validation errors on screen so that users can see them. How you present errors and tell the user what to do about them is an application user experience question that you’ll have to decide for yourself.

But we can show you one way to present errors that you may use for inspiration or “as is”. That’s the purpose of this Breeze Lab.

Display errors with the zValidate directive

The zValidate directive is a way to display property validation errors as error messages adjacent to the errant data value.

A directive is the AngularJS mechanism for manipulating the browser DOM programmatically as part of the AngularJS binding process.

AngularJS ships with a core set of directives that cover many scenarios. But they can’t cover everything and you are encouraged to extend the AngularJS binding system with your own directives as we are doing in this lab project.


Perhaps the best way to understand this directive is to see it in a live example of a “Person Edit” screen.

The following sample only works with modern browsers (IE10+, FF, Chrome).

If you have trouble viewing the plunker sample in your browser, try this link.

The first and last names are required (hence the red asterisks). Try deleting their values. Try entering extraordinarily long names (they have max length validations too). Play with the other properties too.

The “refresh” button restores the original entity. The “new” button creates a new person entity which is immediately in an invalid state.

While this sample demonstrates the zValidate directive, it coincidentally demonstrates a few other Breeze coding techniques such as:

  • Authoring client-side metadata
  • Faking entity data during development
  • Reverting pending changes (undo)
  • Creating a custom twitter validator

Let’s tour the sample code.

Load the directive files

Pick “index.html” from the “Source Code” drop down (you can get back to the displayed result by clicking the “forward” triangle button in the upper right). Scroll to the scripts near the bottom.

The zValidate directive is defined in breeze.directives.js. Notice that we load this script after loading the angular and breeze JavaScript files and before loading any application JavaScript files.

The directive paints error error messages and the required indicator with default templates that depend upon CSS classes defined in breeze.directives.css. Scroll to the top where we loaded that CSS file among the other CSS files. Alternatively, we could have incorporated its contents within the application “style.css”.

Apply the directive

The application is ready to display property validation errors.

You decide which data bound HTML controls should have this behavior by applying the zValidate directive as an attribute of that control. In this sample, we apply it to every textbox. Here is the markup for the “First Name” textbox:

<input data-ng-model="vm.person.firstName" data-z-validate placeholder="First name" autofocus>

The zValidate directive depends upon the ngModel binding expression which it examines to determine the entity and property that might have a validation error.

We use the “data-“ HTML 5 prefix for our AngularJS attribute directives.

The ngModel binding specifies a property path starting from a variable named “vm”.

We’re using the “Controller as” technique for binding a view to a ViewModel. Scroll up a bit to see that we told AngularJS to treat the “personEditController” as a ViewModel named “vm”:

<body data-ng-app="app" 
      data-ng-controller="personEditController as vm">

Controller as” is directly supported as of AngularJS release v1.2 although you could always use a similar style with earlier releases. We like this approach for our applications but not everyone does. Adapt this example to suit your preference.

Returning to the binding expression, we see that ViewModel (vm) exposes a person property which is the Person entity to edit and this textbox is bound to the firstName property.

The directive drew a red asterisk next to the textbox to indicate that the first name is required. We’ll see how it knew to do that in a little bit.


You can create and remove validation errors by playing with the textbox values. Breeze monitors your changes and updates the validation error(s) for each property accordingly. AngularJS updates the property with every keystroke so you get an immediate visual response.

Where are the validators defined? Open the “model.js” via the “Source code” combobox. Look at the configureMetadataStore method.

The configureMetadataStore method is called by the datacontext (see the datacontext.js file). The datacontext is a service that encapsulates the mundane details of data access. It also encapsulates many of the application’s interactions with Breeze.

A typical datacontext (AKA “dataservice”) would query and save data to a remote service at the request of an AngularJS controller. This sample doesn’t have a service. So this datacontext returns fake Person data.

The configureMetadataStore method has three steps.

  1. Create a new validator called “twitter”
  2. Add the Person entity type to the metadata
  3. Discover and register all properties with a “required” validation.

Create a custom validator

Most of the Person properties are validated with stock validators, shipped with Breeze. A “twitter” validator is not one of them so we had to write one. Check it out; notice that it’s built with the Breeze RegularExpression validator factory method.

Client-side metadata

This sample doesn’t get data from a server. We’re either editing a faked Person or a newly created Person entity that we won’t save. There is no server. There is no server-supplied metadata.

A Breeze client needs metadata. Fortunately, we can define that metadata in JavaScript on the client … which we do in the addPersonType method.

Scroll to that method and look at the definition of the firstName data property:

firstName:  { dataType: DT.String, 
              validators: [
                  Validator.maxLength({maxLength: 20})] }

The firstName definition includes two stock validators: required and maxLength. The stock validators are produced by generator functions that are static members of the Breeze Validator class. We trust you can follow the pattern for the remaining properties.

Required property indicator

The directive can paint a required property indicator next to the input control or combobox bound to a required property.

Breeze itself has no native notion of a “required” property. You can’t ask the metadata for the required properties. This directive infers that a property is required and should display the required indicator by inspecting each property’s validators. It treats a property as required if one of its validators is either named “required” or its context object has an.isRequired property that is true.

If you add custom validators that should be treated as required, add .isRequired = true; to the validator’s context object as seen in this example from the “model.validation.js” in John Papa’s PluralSight course, “Building Apps with AngularJS and Breeze.

    function createRequireReferenceValidator() {
        var name = 'requireReferenceEntity';
        // isRequired = true so zValidate directive displays required indicator
        var ctx = { messageTemplate: 'Missing %displayName%', isRequired: true };
        var val = new Validator(name, valFunction, ctx);
        return val;

        // passes if reference has a value and is not the nullo (whose id===0)
        function valFunction(value) {
            return value ? !== 0 : false;

Reconfiguring the error and required templates

The zValidate directive has a default template for displaying errors and another template for displaying the required indicator.

You can replaces these templates with your own templates via the zDirectivesConfig service (included in breeze.directives.js). It’s best to reset the templates when your application starts-up as this sample does.

Open the app.js file.

  angular.module('app', ['breeze.directives'])
    .config(['zDirectivesConfigProvider', configDirective]);

The app is resetting the templates (see theconfigDirective method) during the application module’s “config” phase. Because this is the “config” phase, we inject the zDirectivesConfigProvider into the configDirective method rather than the zDirectivesConfig service.

See the AngularJS documentation for modules to learn about the life-cycle of an AngularJS module and “configuration blocks” in particular.

zValidate in a repeater

This sample shows how you can display validation messages while editing a single Person entity. What if the screen presented many Person entities and you wanted to see all of their property validation error messages?

You can do that in the manner you’d expect.

<li data-ng-repeat="person in vm.persons">
    <div><input data-ng-model="firstName" data-z-validate placeholder="First name"></div>

Why not use HTML5 or AngularJS validation

HTML 5 defines a collection of form validation attributes. AngularJS forms and controls have built-in validation services. Why not use either of these facilities instead of Breeze validation?

The answer boils down to a fundamental difference between “Markup validation” and “Model validation”.

We could argue from principle. Validations are business rules. Business rules belong in the model, not in the markup. The model is the single source of truth on the client; the UI is merely an expression of the state of the model.

While all true, most of us are unmoved by this kind of philosophical reasoning. We are practical people, trying to get the job done efficiently.

Fortunately, there is a practical argument to bolster the philosophical: the zValidate directive is easier to write and maintain than either HTML or AngularJS markup.

  • The person who writes the markup doesn’t have to know the validation rules for each field; she just writes z-validate.

  • A single directive is sufficient whether the property has one validation rule or five validation rules.

  • No one must update the HTML when validation rules come (and go and change).

  • If we have more than one view of Person, we don’t have to worry whether the same validation rules are coded on both views.

  • “Markup validation” systems only reveal errors when the user enters a value. Sometimes the data are invalid on arrival. The user won’t know that a property is invalid until … and unless … she modifies the value. That’s a sub par user experience.

Markup validation makes sense when you are binding to a simple object that doesn’t have its own business rules. It is a convenient declarative alternative to writing a lot of validation JavaScript in the ViewModel. But Breeze entities come equipped, out-of-the-box with a metadata-driven, extensible, model validation mechanism which is both more powerful and easier to use. Skip the markup validation and go straight to the source … with zValidate.


The approach described and implemented in this directive doesn’t cover every scenario.

Property errors only

This directive displays property validation errors only. The entity may have errors that are not specific to a particular entity. You’ll need to find another way to display them.

Message location and format

You can configure the “required” and “error” templates but the directive is written to display those templates in a particular location relative to the data bound HTML control. You’ll have to revise the directive if that doesn’t suit your needs.

Only input controls

The directive only works for HTML controls with the ngModel directive which is to say, with controls that accept user input. If you wanted to display error messages next to a read-only display of person properties, you would probably revise the directive to get the property info from ngBind and devise another way to present the error message.

Multiple errors

A property can have multiple validation errors. This directive concatenates their error messages, separated by semi-colons (;). You’ll have to revise the directive if you want different behavior.

What about Knockout?

This directive is an AngularJS solution.

We love Knockout too. We expect to write a Knockout Custom Binding that implements the same behavior with the same simplicity of application.

Feel free to beat us to it. We’d love to hear about it and perhaps publish it in Breeze Labs.